Top Ideas on Decontamination of Medical Facilities
The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. Noxious contaminants results to the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment. The fields in which decontamination is applied is medical environments that include veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.
Food preparation, environmental science and forensic science are the other areas in which the process of decontamination is applied. The process of decontamination involves three methods so as to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.
The level of disinfection involves use of disinfectants which are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non- living objects to destroy microorganisms that are present in living things. The resistant bacterial spores are not killed by disinfection spores but other types of microorganism are eliminated. All types of microorganisms are killed by sterilization which is the more effective than disinfection. The disinfection process works by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
There are various types of disinfectants which include; alcohols, aldehydes, air disinfectants, oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds as a type of disinfectant include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Concentrated formulations are found in some quaternary ammonium compounds which are a large group of related compounds. The group of chlorine as an inorganic compound includes hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chlorine.
There are several methods of decontamination which include physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, suspended solids and gases and biological contaminants from water. Disinfection of drinking water is done through the process of purification which makes it suitable for human consumption.
The following applications that is industrial, medical, pharmacological and chemical are requirements that are fulfilled by water purification. There are methods that are used in water purification which include; sedimentation, filtration, distillation which are physical processes while biological process include slow sand filters or biologically active carbon also there are chemical processes which are flocculation and chlorination.
Not only does water purification reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter but also it reduce the concentration of particulate matter such as algae, fungi, suspended particles and bacteria. A method of decontamination that involves removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization which is also a level of decontamination. Heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure are the ways in which sterilization is achieved.